Konubinix' opinionated web of thoughts

Thinking, Fast and Slow

fleeting

By Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky.

biais cognitif système 1, système 2, principle of least effort

Kahneman introduces two characters that animate the mind:

  • System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.
  • System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

focuses on existing evidence and ignores absent evidence (WYSIATI)generates a limited set of basic assessments

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

computes more than intended (mental shotgun)

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

WYSIATI is the tendency for System 1 to draw conclusions based on the readily available, sometimes misleading information and then, once made, to believe in those conclusions fervently

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

measured impact of halo effects, confirmation bias, framing effects, and base-rate neglect are aspects of jumping to conclusions in practice

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

confirmation bias, where we are more open to and looking for evidence that supports our beliefs, rather than what doesn’t.

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

when dealing with a complex or difficult issue, we transform the question into an easier one that we can answer

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

when asked “How happy are you with life”, we answer the question, “What is my mood now”

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

exaggerated faith in small samples,

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Less is MoreGiven the description, “Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Which alternative is more probable?Linda is a bank teller.Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.”In this case, the additional detail that Linda is “active in the feminist movement” in answer 2., only serves to make the probability lower, since it imposes more constraints. But, because of the accompanying narrative, we like the second option, even though it is less likely. This is why Less is

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Kahneman quotes two famous social scientists (Nisbett and Borgida):“Subjects’ unwillingness to deduce the particular from the general was matched only by their willingness to infer the general from the particular.”

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

often look for causal reasons to explain lucky streaks and other sequences of seemingly meaningful numbers

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Illusion of understanding: we construct narratives to aid in understanding and to make sense of the world. We look for causality where none exists

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Illusion of validity: pundits, stock pickers and other experts develop an outsized sense of expertise

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Planning fallacy: this fallacy afflicts many professions and stem from plans and forecasts that are unrealistically close to best case; and, do not take into account the actual results of similar projects.

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Cognitive EaseWhatever is easier for System 2 is more likely to be believed. Ease arises from idea repetition, clear display, a primed idea, and even one’s own good mood. It turns out that even the repetition of a falsehood can lead people to accept it, despite knowing it’s untrue, since the concept becomes familiar and is cognitively easy to process.

https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a

Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman: Animated Summary with focus on ‘System 1 & 2’

  • External reference:

system 1 is better at what it does than system 2

It perform very fast analogies and gives very close results.

System 2 needs a lot of energy and sometimes does not even provide a result.

a useful wrong image

Daniel Kahneman acknowledges that there are not such things of two agents in the brain. But the brain appears to behave as if there were two agents.

One useful aspect of this idea of two agents is that it allegedly help people reason and remember about those modes.

system 1 gives intuitions, the system 2 verifies

Notes linking here