Thinking, Fast and Slowfleeting
- External reference: https://marklooi.medium.com/summary-of-kahnemans-thinking-fast-and-slow-3d1c2ea0e6a
- External reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thinking,_Fast_and_Slow
Kahneman introduces two characters that animate the mind:
- System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.
- System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.
focuses on existing evidence and ignores absent evidence (WYSIATI)generates a limited set of basic assessments
computes more than intended (mental shotgun)
WYSIATI is the tendency for System 1 to draw conclusions based on the readily available, sometimes misleading information and then, once made, to believe in those conclusions fervently
measured impact of halo effects, confirmation bias, framing effects, and base-rate neglect are aspects of jumping to conclusions in practice
confirmation bias, where we are more open to and looking for evidence that supports our beliefs, rather than what doesn’t.
when dealing with a complex or difficult issue, we transform the question into an easier one that we can answer
when asked “How happy are you with life”, we answer the question, “What is my mood now”
exaggerated faith in small samples,
Less is MoreGiven the description, “Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Which alternative is more probable?Linda is a bank teller.Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.”In this case, the additional detail that Linda is “active in the feminist movement” in answer 2., only serves to make the probability lower, since it imposes more constraints. But, because of the accompanying narrative, we like the second option, even though it is less likely. This is why Less is
Kahneman quotes two famous social scientists (Nisbett and Borgida):“Subjects’ unwillingness to deduce the particular from the general was matched only by their willingness to infer the general from the particular.”
often look for causal reasons to explain lucky streaks and other sequences of seemingly meaningful numbers
Illusion of understanding: we construct narratives to aid in understanding and to make sense of the world. We look for causality where none exists
Illusion of validity: pundits, stock pickers and other experts develop an outsized sense of expertise
Planning fallacy: this fallacy afflicts many professions and stem from plans and forecasts that are unrealistically close to best case; and, do not take into account the actual results of similar projects.
Cognitive EaseWhatever is easier for System 2 is more likely to be believed. Ease arises from idea repetition, clear display, a primed idea, and even one’s own good mood. It turns out that even the repetition of a falsehood can lead people to accept it, despite knowing it’s untrue, since the concept becomes familiar and is cognitively easy to process.
Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman: Animated Summary with focus on ‘System 1 & 2’
- External reference:
It perform very fast analogies and gives very close results.
System 2 needs a lot of energy and sometimes does not even provide a result.
a useful wrong image
Daniel Kahneman acknowledges that there are not such things of two agents in the brain. But the brain appears to behave as if there were two agents.
One useful aspect of this idea of two agents is that it allegedly help people reason and remember about those modes.
Notes linking here
- #150 - The Map of Misunderstanding
- aisance cognitive
- avoir l’intuition de faire les choses bien vs être convaincu de faire les choses bien
- biais vs bruit
- Ce qu’On Voit Et Rien d’Autre
- chess player metaphor
- chevrotine mentale
- Cognitive bias, heuristic, logical fallacy: hidden features of the mind
- contrôleur paresseux
- Daniel Kahneman
- Daniel Kahneman: Thinking Fast and Slow, Deep Learning, and AI | Lex Fridman Podcast
- deux vitesses de la pensée, et le “Bullshitomètre”
- effet de Halo
- esprit critique : fake news et rumeurs
- estimer à la hausse par peur de s’engager
- Going beyond System 1/2 - the many flavours and layers of decision-making psychology
- gtd, c’est interroger ton «Système 1» avec un outil qui évite autant que possible des biais liés à la procrastination
- gtd, visualisation, estimation et zettelkasten
- guided serendipity
- heuristique de jugement
- how we’re fooled by statistics
- hungry judge effect
- illusion of validity
- interprétation des couleurs
- langage vernaculaire ou épistémique ?
- lien entre le choix du langage et les Système 1 / Système 2
- machine associative
- naturalistic decision-making
- notre tendance à inférer le général du particulier n’a d’égale que notre incapacité à inférer le particulier du général
- nous sommes de mauvais estimateurs
- problème avec le monde, c’est que les imbéciles et les fanatiques sont toujours si sûrs d’eux, et les gens plus sages, si pleins de doutes
- problème interne et externe
- rational thinking fallacy
- reportage Les super pouvoirs de notre cerveau
- roam, association and how the brain works
- réparer les émotions
- science of thinking
- substitution de question
- we cannot fight against our cognitive biases
- when applying code consistency and when not to
- You’re About to Make a Terrible Mistake!