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Psychologie Évolutionnaire


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Épisode d’Homo Fabulus.

https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=0s In 1859, in his famous work The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin wrote this little sentence:
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=5.49s “In the distant future I see roads open to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=10.8s even more important research. Psychology will be firmly established on a new basis,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=16.5s that is, on the necessarily gradual acquisition of all the faculties and all the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=22.74s mental aptitudes, which will throw a vivid light on the origin of man and on its
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=27.75s history. [1]
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=28.8s Darwin was apparently very excited to apply the theory of evolution to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=32.64s human cognition, but you will notice that he said it could only be done “in the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=36.72s distant future.” And he was right to be so careful,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=39.45s because you know what he would have said if he had come back a century later,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=42.57s and had taken a look at the state of research on
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=45.54s human behavior. In the 60s ? “But what the hell
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=48.69s have you been doing
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=49.74s for a century, you bloody bastards goddamit, I’ll make myself a cup of tea”.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=62.86s Evolutionary psychology is one of the research programs which, a century and thirty
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=67.24s years later, sets out to take up the challenge launched by Darwin, that is to say to use the theory of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=72.25s evolution to better understand the human behavior.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=74.53s The idea behind this challenge is very simple: 1 / we know that behaviors are produced by
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=79.96s a brain. 2 / The brain is biological matter. 3 / Biological matter is subject
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=86.11s to the laws of evolution, and to natural selection in particular.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=89.5s The conclusion is that we must be able to inform the study of human behavior by the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=93.64s theory of evolution, and by natural selection in particular.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=96.7s It is all the more normal to want to apply the theory of evolution to behavior
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=99.76s as the reproductive success of an organism depends enormously on its behavior. You may have
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=104.77s the most sophisticated organs, you may have a heart,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=108.88s lungs, stomach and eyes that are feats of engineering and allow you not
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=113.95s to die on the spot, if you stay planted all the time. day without adopting any behavior,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=118.6s you will not last long. Many of our organs are also
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=121.57s dependent on the brain to function well. For example, bipedalism is as much a psychological
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=126.85s as an anatomical adaptation : it’s very cool to have two legs and a pelvis suitable for
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=131.05s standing walking, but if you don’t also have the software that allows you to control these limbs,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=135.16s you won’t get very far. You can ask any roboticist who has ever tried
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=139.18s to build a robot that works how important software is, but
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=143.8s not at all trivial to build. And it’s the same for a number of other adaptations, both
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=148s psychological and anatomical: it’s very cool to have a mouth, but if it does
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=152.65s n’t come with a desire to eat, it won’t be useful. to much. It’s very
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=157s cool to have two breasts, but if they don’t come
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=159.46s with a desire to breastfeed your babies, those protrusions are useless.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=162.91s So at the risk of saying trivial things, the chances of survival and reproduction of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=167.02s living beings are extremely dependent on the behavior they adopt. Our psychology,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=171.97s like that of all animals, has necessarily been shaped by natural selection, and it is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=177.04s interesting to study where, how, why. Evolutionary psychology is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=180.97s just one of the approaches that sets out to do this. This is the approach that
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=185.02s proposes to study the cognitive programs that we have in our heads,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=187.81s these programs that allow us to stand up, to want to eat, to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=192.28s want to drink, to take care. of our children, but also of a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=195.37s number of other things that make up our whole mental life: talking,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=198.67s perceiving, memorizing, loving, getting angry, being jealous,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=202.15s being sad, understanding the emotions of others, making moral judgments , reason, etc.,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=207.19s etc. The primary and historical goal of evolutionary psychology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=210.31s is therefore the research and study of all the cognitive programs that
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=214.45s make up our mind. It is sometimes said that evolutionary psychology is in search
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=218.23s of the “mental organs” that make up our mind. We generally tend to think of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=222.04s the brain as a single organ, but from a functional point of view this is too crude
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=226.18s a categorization , the brain knowing how to do a lot of different things that don’t have much in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=230.5s common. It would be more useful for studying it to sub-divide it into its different cognitive
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=234.73s programs , that is to say into different mental organs.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=237.58s And like the organs of the body, these mental organs are believed to be common to the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=241.36s whole human species. Just as a human born in France has the same organs as
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=245.98s a human born in Kenya, because we all belong to the same species, evolutionary psychology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=250.45s postulates that a human born in France will have the same cognitive programs as a human born in France. ‘a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=254.38s human born in Kenya, or Vietnam. It is sometimes said of the psycho evo that it studies the "
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=258.94s mental unity of humanity" [2]. Evolutionary psychology studies what brings all
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=263.44s humans together from a cognitive perspective. You surely know Gray’s anatomy,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=266.32s the series. Before being a series, it was the name of an anatomy book, written in the 19th century
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=271.87s but which still remains a reference today for medical students. The great
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=275.86s thing about this book is that if you open it to any page, the knowledge
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=280.09s you find there is applicable to any human on Earth, with a few exceptions
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=284.11s . This means that if you obtained your medical degree in France, you can go
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=288.49s to the other side of the world and you will still be able to treat people. This is because
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=292.48s we are all part of the same species, and the human body is made up of the same
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=296.11s organs. By analogy,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=297.22s the idea of ​​psycho-evo is to write Gray’s Anatomy of human cognition.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=301.09s And the reason the theory of evolution is important in writing this book
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=304.66s is because of the functional organization. In Gray’s anatomy, the human body is divided
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=309.49s into functions: the heart is used to pump blood, the lungs to breathe, the stomach to digest,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=314.44s etc. In the same way, the human mind is also divided into functions, functions which
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=319.27s have proved useful during evolution. It is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=321.79s all the more important to have the theory of evolution to help us find the organs
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=325.06s of the mind if in the body the organs are easily identifiable because they are delimited
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=329.69s in space, in the mind. it is not that simple. The organs of the mind are
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=333.26s immaterial programs, which certainly run on the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=336.26s material support that are neurons, but these neurons all look more or less
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=339.83s anatomically speaking. To help us identify these programs
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=342.95s and study how they work, we therefore need the theory of evolution. Let’s play
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=347.12s a little game: explain this tool to me. Explain to me how
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=350.99s each of its parts work, how they
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=353.69s interact with each other, and what the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=355.97s general function of the craft is. A measuring instrument? An instrument of torture? Not easy
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=362.21s eh? What if now I tell you it’s an olive pitter? Doesn’t that make it easier for you
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=367.13s to discover how the object works? Now you should be able
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=371.12s to tell me what each part of this object is for: this part to hold the olive,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=375.74s this one to squeeze the olive, this one to make the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=378.98s pit fall out. right without putting it everywhere. The important idea behind this example is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=383.09s that when you know the function of an object, the explanation of its organization and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=387.26s operation is greatly facilitated [3]. The hope of evolutionary psychology is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=391.16s that we can do the same with the brain, that the theory of evolution can illuminate the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=395.12s functioning of the brain and facilitate its understanding,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=396.74s and that it can help us understand new stuff from this at first glance
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=400.79s incredibly complex object, an object the comprehension of which is considered by some to be
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=405.05s the biggest challenge for science in the 21st century.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=414.16s If evolutionary psychology took more than a century to emerge after Darwin, it is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=418.57s not only because of the unwillingness of 20th century scholars. It is also because
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=422.71s it was only in the second half of the 20th century that two major
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=426.01s scientific advances took place . The first is the gene-centric view of evolution,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=429.7s and the second is the view of the brain as an
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=432.1s information processing system. The vision of evolution centered on the gene
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=435.88s is the vision described by Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene [4], which
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=440.29s I will have to present to you one day, but in the meantime I highly recommend
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=443.56s its reading if it is not already done, I put a link in description. In this book,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=448.06s Dawkins popularizes the work of some of the greatest
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=450.49s evolutionary biologists of the 20th century, and in particular William
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=454s Hamilton, John Maynard Smith, Robert Trivers and George Williams. Without going into details,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=458.92s these researchers have greatly clarified the theory of evolution, clarified its scope and shown that
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=464.23s postulating that natural selection acts at the level of genes and not of individuals or groups
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=468.46s allows us to understand a lot of things about living things. . If you were fascinated by what
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=473.02s is told in The Selfish Gene, know that you are not the only one: this work had a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=476.89s considerable impact on the biologists of the 60s and 70s, who set out to apply these
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=481.87s new ideas. with great success, a success that continues today.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=485.62s The second scientific revolution that takes place at around the same time, if not a little
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=489.25s earlier in the 1950s and 1960s, is the cognitive revolution. It was the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=493.6s beginning of what would later become the cognitive sciences,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=495.7s a set of rather disparate disciplines which all have in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=499.09s common the view of the brain as an information processing system. Without going into
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=503.11s too much detail again, before this cognitive revolution we didn’t really study how
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=507.22s the brain worked, we saw it as a black box, we didn’t really know
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=511.39s what was going on there and some even thought that it wasn’t. was not very important what was
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=514.75s going on there . We said, it’s just learning,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=516.91s the association stimulus-response. This vision has today been replaced by the vision which
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=521.23s sees the brain as an information processing system, and if this vision is very
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=525.28s natural to us today, it is because we are constantly surrounded by machines that do
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=529.48s calculations. But imagine having to study the brain without having any idea what a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=533.95s computer is. Imagine being in the 1930s-40s and having to study our mental activity without
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=539.62s knowing that machines can do very sophisticated calculations from very simple rules.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=544.17s No wonder what was going on in our head was considered mysterious. It was
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=547.53s therefore only later, in the 1950s and 1960s, with the progress of theoretical computer science and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=551.55s the help of some experimental results [5, 6] that the cognitive sciences and their paradigm of information
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=555.42s processing it’s imposed. So we have two scientific revolutions in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=559.59s the second half of the 20th century: the cognitive vision of the brain, and the vision of evolution
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=563.97s centered on the gene. And there, at the crossroads of these two revolutions, who do you
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=568.32s think we find? Paf, evolutionary psychology.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=571.95s In the 1970s and 1980s, researchers began to wonder what it would be like if we
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=576.45s put these two revolutions together. They wonder if this would not be the opportunity to finally
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=580.53s merge all research programs on humans, to no longer be content to study
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=584.34s humans in humanities faculties on the one hand, in faculties of psychology on the other, and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=588.45s in biology faculties of another, without there ever being any communication between
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=592.29s these fields. Evolutionary psychology proposes to put all these disciplines together,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=596.19s and to see how their different points of view can complement each other to help us
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=600.6s better understand the human. This is something that I tried to highlight in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=604.26s my series on morals, which I recommend you watch if you haven’t already, because
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=608.64s I will be relying on it often. We saw in this series that the work of philosophers
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=612.06s complement the work of primatologists, that those of anthropologists complete those of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=616.23s biologists, that those of biologists complete those of philosophers. Anyway, all
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=620.43s disciplines complement each other and after decades of dispersing the study of humans
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=624.87s into different disciplines, evolutionary psychology thinks
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=627.9s it might be good to begin to decompartmentalize all of this.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=631.47s As John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, two of the founders of evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=635.16s psychology, [7] put it: “The goal of evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=637.74s psychology is to eradicate disciplinary boundaries, and to unify
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=641.55s evolutionary, genetic, neural, cognitive, psychological
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=644.58s sciences , behavioral and social, because the idea that they are
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=648.33s different disciplines is a sociological vestige of the time
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=651.99s when they were founded. Reality has no such boundaries. "
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=655.74s And indeed, reality has no boundaries. The human being is a single object, a single subject
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=661.38s of study which must not, which must no longer be divided between
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=664.5s nature and culture, between innate and acquired, between genes and environment, between sociology and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=670.2s biology. This is one of the first very important aspects of psycho-evo: its
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=674.38s integrative aspect, that is to say its desire to help unify
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=677.74s all the disciplines that study humans. Second important point, evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=681.46s psychology is interested in human cognition as a whole. If you had studied
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=685.63s psychology in the 70s / 80s, you would have mostly spoken to you about memory, perception,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=690.31s intelligence and personality [8]. Love? Almost unknown
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=694.33s to the battalion. Cooperation, morality, conscience, empathy? All that was not very
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=699.37s studied. Sexual attraction, jealousy, food? The
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=703.39s status, dominance, friendship, disgust? Same, poor relatives of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=707.2s psychology. All of those things that are central to our day-to-day psychology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=711.07s , love, morals, sex, friendship, food, were not well studied.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=715.42s Evolutionary psychology decides to seize these
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=717.61s and says that if they are so important in our mental life, it’s for good
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=721.66s reason. This is because they have to do with important survival and reproductive
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=725.02s issues that our ancestors faced
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=727.87s for hundreds of thousands of years. Evolutionary psychology brings out of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=731.53s the shadows certain subjects which had been neglected until then in favor of other
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=735.25s supposedly more noble mental activities such as intelligence or memory.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=737.8s Finally, and lastly, evolutionary psychology opposes the tendency to believe
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=742.21s that a phenomenon has been explained simply because it has been described. To describe is not to explain.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=747.07s When you say, for example, that humans tend to ignore information
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=751.27s that goes against their beliefs because they have a confirmation bias, you feel like
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=756.19s you have explained a stuff, but you haven’t explained much. You
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=760.12s just redesigned, you just pasted the “confirmation bias” label on a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=764.53s behavior. What we would really like to know is why humans have this bias, and why
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=769.45s there are so many others. The psycho évo proposes to go beyond traditional explanations,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=773.44s to deepen them, without replacing them.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=776.02s Imagine that someone tries to explain to you what a car is, and that to do that all
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=779.92s he does is tell you about the existence of the different
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=783.01s parts: the presence of four wheels, a steering wheel, seats, one place is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=787.54s an engine, another a clutch, and another a gearbox. But imagine that at
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=792.13s no time does this person explain to you what these different elements are used for, why
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=796.27s they are organized in a certain way, and how they all together serve
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=800.14s the function of the car, which is to move. It
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=802.66s would be an aberration. Yet this is something that was practiced a lot in psychology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=806.47s in the second half of the 20th century, and that I still often come across today.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=809.86s Evolutionary psychology not only tries to deepen explanations, but it
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=814.45s also opposes far-fetched explanations. The explanations,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=817.33s she tells us, must be compatible with the theory of modern evolution. This is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=821.98s an important point again, because at one time if you wanted to postulate that
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=825.67s human psychology was meant to work for the good of the species, or even more wacky
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=830.65s stuff like maximizing harmony between living things and their environment, you
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=835.21s had the right in quotes, since no one had a better theory anyway. The
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=839.29s psycho evolved reminded us that a very good theory was now available to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=842.74s psychologists, a theory which says that the brain is an organ like any other evolved by natural selection
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=847.39s , and that the replication of the gene - and not that of the species for example - is
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=851.41s at the heart of this process.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=857.4s (I take this opportunity to say that the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=859.4s next videos risk being loaded in ultimately ambiguous language, that is to say in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=864.05s language which could suggest that natural
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=866.33s selection has intentions, or that organs have evolved in a predefined goal Obviously
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=871.28s this is not the case, my explanations are still based on blind natural selection and without
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=875.42s final causes, but that does not prevent the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=877.34s use of ultimately ambiguous terms (in any case that does not prevent me not me): I highly recommend
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=882.44s to those who have not already done so to watch this video).
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=887.84s This is what evolutionary psychology is in a nutshell. This is the research program
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=891.71s that proposes to map the organs of the human mind, to write Gray’s anatomy
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=895.7s of the mind, to identify the universal cognitive programs evolved by natural selection,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=900.77s to study all of human cognition. and not just its noblest fields, to do
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=905.42s all of this based on two of the greatest scientific
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=907.85s revolutions of the twentieth century, and to remove the disciplinary boundaries
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=911.45s within which generations of academics have locked themselves.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=914.12s Isn’t that a great research program? Who could have
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=918.26s fault with that, you must be wondering? Haa my dear subscribers, I recognize there your
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=922.43s legendary naivety. Evolutionary psychology is probably
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=926.03s one of the most controversial scientific disciplines, even more so than
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=929.6s geology. In fact, I’m even willing to bet that if you’ve heard of it before me, you
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=933.89s ’ve heard of it badly. So I’ll devote a big chunk of this upcoming video series
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=938.6s to answering the critics, but I want to start by presenting the psycho evo to you in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=942.5s a non-defensive, positive way, because it’s too good a research program and too much.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=947.6s important to be presented only through the prism of those who criticize it.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=950.78s Series of videos, because yes I have planned a good series to explain all this in detail,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=955.31s for the moment I am considering ten videos, some of which should briskly exceed
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=960.08s half an hour. But before you start, a few words of vocabulary. You will more
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=963.68s often come across evolutionary psychology under the name of evolutionary or evopsy psychology. These
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=968.57s are two terms that I don’t really like, the first because of the suffix “iste” which has a
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=972.68s militant and pejorative connotation, and the second because
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=976.4s if evopsy is supposed to be the abbreviation of the English “evolutionary psychology”,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=980.75s I’ve hardly ever heard this diminutive be used
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=983.66s in English, and then it sounds too marketing, it feels like a word created to make
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=987.98s something that isn’t sexy enough. But the psycho evo is not there to be sexy, it
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=992.12s is there to study the human, and that is why personally I never use the term
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=995.9s evopsy. I will only use the term “Evolutionary Psychology” or its abbreviation “Psycho
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1000.82s évo”, but don’t worry I won’t blame you if you use the other words,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1004.54s the important thing is that we understand each other. The second point of vocabulary is that one
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1007.87s can distinguish between evolutionary psychology in the strict sense and evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1011.92s psychology in the broad sense. The psycho evo in the strict sense is the one that I started to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1016.27s present to you , which was born in the 80s, and which puts the theory of evolution at the heart of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1022.15s its research program, in particular to generate hypotheses of job. Evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1026.02s psychology at large also recognizes the importance of evolution in explaining
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1030.1s behavior but without actually using it on a day-to-day basis. I would say that the majority
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1034.21s of cognitive scientists and neuroscientists
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1035.98s today are evolutionary psychologists in the broad sense. It is not rare, for example,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1040.27s when they present their work to see them start
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1042.94s or end with an evolutionary slide, for example in this conf by Stanislas Dehaene,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1062.38s or in this linguistics conf that I was watching the other day. On the other hand, these researchers
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1068.77s will not directly use the theory of evolution to generate predictions.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1072.67s Myself, with a bachelor’s degree in generalist biology and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1075.4s a master’s degree in neuroscience, I’m more of an evolutionary
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1077.83s psychologist in the broad sense at the base, but I don’t mind taking the defense
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1081.64s of evolutionary psychology in the strict sense to show you that even this one, sometimes
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1086.62s presented as too extreme, is still very relevant.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1089.71s Finally, there are other disciplines which make the link between human behavior and evolution,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1094.48s such as behavioral genetics, population genetics, behavioral ecology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1098.95s or sociobiology. These disciplines are often confused with evolutionary psychology,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1103.51s but there are some important differences that I will explain to you along the way.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1107.23s Here is the menu that I propose to you to study all this. First, I will
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1111.37s introduce you to the basic concepts of evolutionary psychology,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1114.01s its important ideas, and its general paradigm.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1116.68s Then we will focus on a particular and central concept in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1120.88s evolutionary biology, which is the concept of adaptation.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1123.46s Roughly speaking, it’s the question of how biologists go about identifying
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1128.17s living matter that has been shaped by natural selection. We will then do a small
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1132.94s case study by taking as an example a particular psychological adaptation, I have
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1137.02s not yet decided which one, but probably the meaning of disgust. We will look at what kinds
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1141.67s of data are used by evolutionary psychologists when they argue that disgust
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1144.97s has evolved for a specific reason. At this point it will be time to make a little
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1149.08s FAQ that will address most of the questions you might ask yourself on the subject,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1152.89s and the received ideas that sometimes circulate. From there we will take
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1155.95s a step back to discuss more meta subjects. We will talk about the ethical problems
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1160.06s posed by psycho-evo and evolutionary studies of human behavior in general, we will
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1164.2s ask for example whether this research is dangerous and if so, should we refrain from
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1168.88s doing research on it. We will then move on to the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1171.28s critical part : we will study some of the academic critiques that have
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1174.55s been made at the psycho evo, and I will tell you which ones
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1177.67s are relevant, and which are missing the point. Conversely, biology and cognitive
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1181.6s sciences have not shied away from criticizing
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1184.24s traditional social sciences, and I will present these criticisms to you in
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1187.15s a dedicated video. Finally, we will do a little recap of the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1190.39s whole series and I will give advice to those who want to study evolutionary psychology
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1194.47s in France. I hope you enjoy this menu as much
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1197.17s as I do. I warn you that it will still be very dense, I will have to tackle a lot of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1202.1s different concepts, because of the very interdisciplinary nature of the subject and because
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1206.3s evolutionary biology and cognitive sciences are
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1208.28s relatively few disciplines. popularized. But the result
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1211.1s should be worth it, and then some of you have told me that you like
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1214.55s taking it all in your head, so I comply. Last thing, this series of videos will be reread
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1219.35s by a group of around thirty philosophers, biologists, psychologists, sociologists and various
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1223.58s experts in human behavior, a group that I have set up especially for the occasion.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1228.02s Not all of these researchers will reread every script every time, but a few always take
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1231.98s the time to do so, so that the quality of this series doesn’t depend on
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1236s my limited skills alone. I was telling you at the start of the video that it took
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1239.63s a century after Darwin’s death to start applying the theory of
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1243.14s evolution to human behavior. For science,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1245.9s this is damaging, but let’s see the bright side: it means that there
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1250.13s are still plenty of discoveries to be made, plenty of things to understand, and that these discoveries
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1254.63s will be made in real time. before us throughout the twenty-first century. We will have a front
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1259.37s row seat to revel in it all, and even better,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1261.77s some of these discoveries will be made by you, those of you who decide
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1265.97s to devote your time to research on human behavior. It is incredible luck. Imagine,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1271.16s we could all have been born in the 24th century, when the theory of evolution has already been
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1275.21s applied to all known life forms and the
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1278.06s greatest discoveries have already been made. Worse, one could have been born before the 19th century, and
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1282.83s never heard of Darwin’s idea, “the best idea anyone ever had
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1287.09s " as it has been described [9]. But no, not only are we lucky to have been born after the 19th
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1291.59s century, but also just after the theory of evolution began to be applied to
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1296.48s the human brain. So let’s rejoice, and I hope this series is useful
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1299.96s in helping you appreciate the scope
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1301.31s of the discoveries that will be made before your eyes throughout the twenty-first century.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1307.51s Thank you to Nomis, Gauthier P., John Doe, GRA, Cyrille Berne and to the 285 tipeurs who support me
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1314.32s , I wanted to say particularly thank you this time because it will be more than
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1318.64s three months since I published any videos, and yet all I did was work for the channel
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1322.9s during that time, reading or re-reading everything I could on the subject,
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1326.38s not only the classics of psycho evo but also its
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1328.9s reviews. A lot of videographers would not have allowed themselves
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1331.6s such an absence on Youtube and would have put the pressure on themselves to publish something, but I am
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1335.59s lucky to know, because many of you have told me, that most of you you do
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1339.58s n’t really care about the amount of videos I
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1341.89s produce; it’s all to your credit, but it deserves a thanks.
https://youtu.be/-ZymntQT-zI&t=1344.83s The next videos will follow each other much faster.