Konubinix' opinionated web of thoughts

Principe De Parcimonie

fleeting

Voir zététique.

Aide à la prise de décision.

Fasse à plusieurs hypothèse d’explication d’un phénomène, toutes choses égales par ailleurs, favoriser l’hypothèse ajoutant le moins de mystère.

Favoriser l’hypothèse la plus facile à rejeter. Car rejeter une hypothèse, c’est faire avancer la connaissance.

Ça ne dit pas qu’elle est vrai, juste qu’on n’a pas plus de raison de préférer les autres. En plus, elle est moins mystérieuse, donc plus facilement rejetable.

En d’autres termes, on ne peut pas rejeter une hypothèse sur la simple base du principe de parcimonie. On peut simplement considérer qu’on ne la privilégie pas.

Occam’s razor is not an embargo against the positing of any kind of entity, or a recommendation of the simplest theory come what may

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

when presented with competing hypotheses about the same prediction, one should prefer the one that requires the fewest assumptions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

is not meant to be a way of choosing between hypotheses that make different predictions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

in science, Occam’s razor is used as an abductive heuristic in the development of theoretical models rather than as a rigorous arbiter between candidate models.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

“Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem”, which translates as “Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

In the related concept of overfitting, excessively complex models are affected by statistical noise (a problem also known as the bias-variance trade-off), whereas simpler models may capture the underlying structure better and may thus have better predictive performance

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

Even if some increases in complexity are sometimes necessary, there still remains a justified general bias toward the simpler of two competing explanations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

for each accepted explanation of a phenomenon, there is always an infinite number of possible, more complex, and ultimately incorrect, alternatives. This is so because one can always burden a failing explanation with an ad hoc hypothesis. Ad hoc hypotheses are justifications that prevent theories from being falsified.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

endless supply of elaborate competing explanations, called saving hypotheses, cannot be technically ruled out – except by using Occam’s razor.[32][

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

may be justified by its falsifiability criterion: we prefer simpler theories to more complex ones “because their empirical content is greater; and because they are better testable”.[39] The idea here is that a simple theory applies to more cases than a more complex one, and is thus more easily falsifiable.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

In science, Occam’s razor is used as a heuristic to guide scientists in developing theoretical models rather than as an arbiter between published models

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

Science prefers the simplest explanation that is consistent with the data available at a given time, but the simplest explanation may be ruled out as new data become available.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

variant of Occam’s razor known as Morgan’s Canon: “In no case is an animal activity to be interpreted in terms of higher psychological processes, if it can be fairly interpreted in terms of processes which stand lower in the scale of psychological evolution and development.” (Morgan 1903).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

Francis Crick has commented on potential limitations of Occam’s razor in biology. He advances the argument that because biological systems are the products of (an ongoing) natural selection, the mechanisms are not necessarily optimal in an obvious sense. He cautions: “While Ockham’s razor is a useful tool in the physical sciences, it can be a very dangerous implement in biology. It is thus very rash to use simplicity and elegance as a guide in biological research."[62] This is an ontological critique of parsimony

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

more recent biological analyses, such as Richard Dawkins’ The Selfish Gene, have contended that Morgan’s Canon is not the simplest and most basic explanation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

Instances of using Occam’s razor to justify belief in less complex and more simple theories have been criticized as using the razor inappropriately

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

Notes pointant ici