- Référence externe : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Grice
saying is a kind of “direct” speech act whereas implicating is an “indirect” speech act
philosopher of language. He is best known for his theory of implicature and the cooperative principle
Grice distinguishes two kinds of non-natural meaning:
Utterer’s meaning: What a speaker means by an utterance.
Timeless meaning: The kind of meaning that can be possessed by a type of utterance, such as a word or a sentence
Cooperative Principle: “Make your contribution such as it is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.” (Grice 1989: 26).
Maxim of Quantity: Information
Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.Maxim of Quality: Truth
Do not say what you believe to be false. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.Maxim of Relation: Relevance
Be relevant.Maxim of Manner: Clarity (“be perspicuous”)
Avoid obscurity of expression. Avoid ambiguity. Be brief (avoid prolixity). Be orderly.
Conversational implicatures are made possible, according to Grice, by the fact that the participants in a conversation always assume each other to behave according to the maxims.
when a speaker appears to have violated a maxim by saying or making as if to say something that is false, uninformative or too informative, irrelevant, or unclear, the assumption that the speaker is in fact obeying the maxims causes the interpreter to infer a hypothesis about what the speaker really meant
appearance of breaking the maxims in a way that is obvious to both speaker and interpreter—to get their implicatures across.[
features which p must possess to count as a conversational implicature. Nondetachability: “The implicature is nondetachable insofar as it is not possible to find another way of saying the same thing (or approximately the same thing) which simply lacks the implicature."Cancelability: “…a putative conversational implicature is explicitly cancelable if, to the form of words the utterance of which putatively implicates that p, it is admissible to add but not p, or I do not mean to imply that p, and it is contextually cancelable if one can find situations in which the utterance of the form of words would simply not carry the implicature."Non-Conventionality: “…conversational implicata are not part of the meaning of the expressions to the employment of which they attach."Calculability: “The presence of a conversational implicature must be capable of being worked out; for even if it can in fact be intuitively grasped, unless the intuition is replaceable by an argument, the implicature (if present at all) will not count as a conversational implicature; it will be a conventional implicature."
Logic and Conversation
Référence externe : http://www.sfu.ca/~jeffpell/Cogs300/GriceLogicConvers75.pdf ()
Référence externe :
Paul Grice: Logic and Conversation
D’après Grice, le sens est une feature des humains, pas des mots.
Our talk exchanges do not normally consist of a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they did. They are characteristically, to some degree at least, cooperative efforts; and each participant recognizes in them, to some extent, a common purpose or set of purposes, or at least a mutually accepted direction.
Notes pointant ici
- conventional implicature
- Gricean Pragmatics
- meaning paul grice
- modestie épistémique
- prémisses implicites
- Rasoir de Grice
- words have meaning, but people also convey meaning when they use words
- zettelkasten teaches humility and nuance